About Psychological


Psychology is the scientific study of the mind and behavior. Psychology is a multifaceted discipline and includes many sub-fields of study such areas as human development, sports, health, clinical, social behavior and cognitive processes. Psychology is concerned with the experience and behaviour of the individual. Behaviour is the expression of experience, which belongs to a subject, and which is due to the interaction of subject and object. It implies the duality of subject and object. If there were no subject and object, there would be no experience.

Some Psychological Issues and Symptoms:

  1. Anxiety Disorder: :

    A mental health disorder characterized by feelings of worries, anxiety or fear that are strong enough to interfere with one's daily activities.

    Symptoms:

    Symptoms include stress that's out of proportion to the impact of the event, inability to set aside a worry and restlessness.

    People may experience:
    • Whole body: fatigue, restlessness, or sweating
    • Behavioral: hyper vigilance or irritability
    • Cognitive: racing thoughts or unwanted thoughts
    • Also common: excessive worry, fear, feeling of impending doom, insomnia, nausea, palpitations, poor concentration, or trembling
  2. Clinical depression :

    A mental health disorder characterized by persistently depressed mood or loss of interest in activities, causing significant impairment in daily life. Possible causes include a combination of biological, psychological and social sources of distress. Increasingly, research suggests that these factors may cause changes in brain function, including altered activity of certain neural circuits in the brain.

    Symptoms:

    Requires a medical diagnosis. The persistent feeling of sadness or loss of interest that characterizes major depression can lead to a range of behavioral and physical symptoms. These may include changes in sleep, appetite, energy level, concentration, daily behaviour or self-esteem. Depression can also be associated with thoughts of suicide.

    People may experience:
    • Pain areas: in the back
    • Mood: anxiety, apathy, general discontent, guilt, hopelessness, loneliness, loss of interest, loss of interest or pleasure in activities, mood swings, panic attack, sadness, or emotional distress
    • Behavioral: agitation, excessive crying, irritability, restlessness, self- harm, or social isolation
    • Sleep: early awakening, excess sleepiness, insomnia, or restless sleep
    • Whole body: excessive hunger, fatigue, or loss of appetite
    • Cognitive: lack of concentration, slowness in activity, or thoughts of suicide
    • Psychological: depression or repeatedly going over thoughts
    • Also common: constipation, headache, poor appetite, substance abuse, or weight loss.
  3. Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD):

    A disorder characterized by failure to recover after experiencing or witnessing a terrifying event.

    Symptoms:

    Symptoms may include nightmares or flashbacks, avoidance of situations that bring back the trauma, heightened reactivity to stimuli, anxiety or depressed mood.

    People may experience:
    • Mood: anger, anxiety, general discontent, guilt, hopelessness, limited range of emotions, loneliness, loss of interest, loss of interest or pleasure in activities, panic attack, or emotional distress
    • Behavioral: aggression, agitation, hostility, hyper vigilance, irritability, screaming, self-destructive behaviour, self-harm, or social isolation
    • Sleep: sleeping difficulty, difficulty falling asleep, insomnia, night terror, nightmares, or sleep deprivation
    • Psychological: depression, fear, flashback, hallucination, severe anxiety, or mistrust
    • Whole body: acute stress or blackout
    • Cognitive: thoughts of suicide or unwanted thoughts
    • Also common: emotional detachment, feeling detached, headache, lack of emotional response, or nervousness
  4. Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)

    Excessive thoughts (obsessions) that lead to repetitive behaviour (compulsions). Obsessive-compulsive disorder is characterized by unreasonable thoughts and fears (obsessions) that lead to compulsive behaviour. OCD often centers on themes such as a fear of germs or the need to arrange objects in a specific manner.

    Symptoms:

    Requires a medical diagnosis OCD often centers on themes such as a fear of germs or the need to arrange objects in a specific manner. Symptoms usually begin gradually and vary throughout life.

    People may experience:
    • Behavioral: compulsive behaviour, agitation, compulsive hoarding, hyperactivity, hyper vigilance, impulsivity, meaningless repetition of own words, repetitive movements, ritualistic behaviour, social isolation, or persistent repetition of words or actions
    • Mood: anxiety, apprehension, general discontent, guilt, or panic attack
    • Psychological: depression, fear, narcissism, repeatedly going over thoughts, or sexual obsessions.
    • Also common: food aversion, nightmares, or racing thoughts.
  5. Dementia

    A group of thinking and social symptoms that interferes with daily functioning. Not a specific disease, dementia is a group of conditions characterized by impairment of at least two brain functions, such as memory loss and judgment

    Symptoms:

    Requires a medical diagnosis. Symptoms include forgetfulness, limited social skills and thinking abilities so impaired that it interferes with daily functioning.

    People may experience:
    • Cognitive: memory loss, mental decline, confusion in the evening hours, disorientation, forgetfulness, inability to speak or understand language, making things up, mental confusion, or inability to recognize common things
    • Behavioral: aggression, irritability, personality changes, restlessness, lack of restraint, or wandering and getting lost
    • Mood: anger, anxiety, apathy, general discontent, loneliness, or mood swings
    • Psychological: depression, hallucination, or paranoia
    • Muscular: inability to combine muscle movements or unsteady walking
    • Also common: difficulty falling asleep, difficulty swallowing, falling, jumbled speech, leaking of stool, nervousness, trembling, or tremor
  6. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    A chronic condition including attention difficulty, hyperactivity and impulsiveness. ADHD often begins in childhood and can persist into adulthood. It may contribute to low self-esteem, troubled relationships and difficulty at school or work.

    Symptoms:

    Symptoms include limited attention and hyperactivity.

    People may experience:
    • o Behavioral: aggression, excitability, fidgeting, hyperactivity, impulsivity, irritability, lack of restraint, or persistent repetition of words or actions
    • o Cognitive: difficulty focusing, forgetfulness, problem paying attention, or short attention span
    • o Mood: anger, anxiety, or excitement
    • o Also common: depression or learning disability
  7. Autism

    A serious developmental disorder that impairs the ability to communicate and interact. Autism spectrum disorder impacts the nervous system and affects the overall cognitive, emotional, social and physical health of the affected individual. Early recognition, as well as behavioural, educational and family therapies may reduce symptoms and support development and learning.

    Symptoms:

    Requires a medical diagnosis. The range and severity of symptoms can vary widely. Common symptoms include difficulty with communication, difficulty with social interactions, obsessive interests and repetitive behaviour.

    People may experience:
    • Behavioral: inappropriate social interaction, poor eye contact, compulsive behaviour, impulsivity, repetitive movements, self-harm, or persistent repetition of words or actions
    • o Developmental: learning disability or speech delay in a child.
    • Muscular: poor coordination or tic.
    • Cognitive: intense interest in a limited number of things or problem paying attention.
    • Psychological: unaware of others' emotions or depression.
    • Speech: speech disorder or abnormal tone of voice.
    • Also common: lack of empathy, anxiety, or sensitivity to sound.
  8. Bipolar disorder (Manic Depression)

    A disorder associated with episodes of mood swings ranging from depressive lows to manic highs. The exact cause of bipolar disorder isn’t known, but a combination of genetics, environment and altered brain structure and chemistry may play a role.

    Symptoms:

    Requires a medical diagnosis. Manic episodes may include symptoms such as high energy, reduced need for sleep and loss of touch with reality. Depressive episodes may include symptoms such as low energy, low motivation and loss of interest in daily activities. Mood episodes last days to months at a time and may also be associated with suicidal thoughts.

    People may experience:
    • Mood: anger, anxiety, apathy, apprehension, euphoria, general discontent, guilt, hopelessness, loss of interest, loss of interest or pleasure in activities, mood swings, sadness, or elevated mood.
    • Behavioural: aggression, agitation, crying, excess desire for sex, hyperactivity, impulsivity, irritability, restlessness, risk-taking behaviours, or self-harm
    • Cognitive: delusion, lack of concentration, racing thoughts, slowness in activity, or unwanted thoughts.
    • Psychological: agitated depression, depression, manic episode, or paranoia.
    • Sleep: difficulty falling asleep or excess sleepiness.
    • Weight: weight gain or weight loss.
    • Also common: false belief of superiority, fatigue, or rapid and frenzied speaking.
  9. Schizophrenia

    A disorder that affects a person's ability to think, feel and behave clearly. The exact cause of schizophrenia isn't known, but a combination of genetics, environment and altered brain chemistry and structure may play a role.

    Symptoms:

    Requires a medical diagnosis. Schizophrenia is characterized by thoughts or experiences that seem out of touch with reality, disorganized speech or behaviour and decreased participation in daily activities. Difficulty with concentration and memory may also be present

    People may experience:
    • Behavioural: aggression, agitation, compulsive behaviour, excitability, hostility, hyperactivity, nonsense word repetition, repetitive movements, self-harm, social isolation, disorganised behaviour, or lack of restraint
    • Psychological: visual hallucinations, depression, fear, grandiosity, hallucination, paranoia, persecutory delusion, religious delusion, hearing voices, or mistrust
    • Mood: anger, anxiety, apathy, excitement, feeling detached from self, general discontent, loss of interest or pleasure in activities, elevated mood, or inappropriate emotional response
    • Cognitive: belief that an ordinary event has special and personal meaning, belief that thoughts aren't one's own, delusion, making things up, mental confusion, slowness in activity, thought disorder, or thoughts of suicide
    • Speech: circumstantial speech, incoherent speech, or rapid and frenzied speaking
    • Also common: verbal auditory hallucinations, false belief of superiority, fatigue, impaired motor coordination, or lack of emotional respo

Consult a Psychiatrist for medical advice

Note: The information you see describes what usually happens with a medical condition, but doesn't apply to everyone. This information isn't medical advice, so make sure that you contact a health care provider if you have a medical problem. If you think you may have a medical emergency, call your doctor or a emergency number immediately.